complete study guide
Exam II (Chapters 5-9)
1. Which of the following functions are included in the six functions of friendships in adulthood?
2. The convoy model of friendships describes _______________ of closeness and support through which friends move in and out during our lifetime.
3. A popular view of gender differences in relationships is that women grow close by ____________.
4. A popular view of gender differences in relationships is that men grow close by _____________.
5. Which theory involves three primary components—intimacy, passion, and decision/commitment—which can combine in various ways to create patterns of love?
6. Three theories offered to explain the cohabitation effect are the _____________.
7. Carlos and Juany, a cohabiting gay couple, have lived next to Will and Maria, a married heterosexual couple, in Miami for five years. Research suggests that cohabitating gay couples are __________ to/from cohabiting and married heterosexual couples in terms of satisfaction and stability.
8. What is the American Psychological Association position on the movement to provide legal same-sex unions for gay couples?
9. Researchers have found which of the following couples are more likely to divorce.
10. Which of the following is the most common reason cited for divorce?
11. Generally, those who divorce at a younger age make better adjustments, and they have _______________ and ________________.
12. The convoy model of friendship and social support, developed by Antonucci in the 1980s, continues to be one of the primary theories pertaining to friendships across adulthood. In what circle would Antonucci place your neighbor or coworker?
13. Based upon research, which of the following groups tend to create larger convoys and are more involved in them?
14. According to Steinberg’s Theory of Love, which is the ultimate combination of all three elements for the most satisfying love relationship?
15. Biological pregnancy, step-parenting, and adoption are pathways to ____________.
16. Which of the following factors are considered a reward(s) of parenting.
17. What does the research in your text suggest is the cost of parenting?
18. Parental satisfaction is greatly influenced by _______________, particularly in families with stepparents.
19. Parental dissatisfaction is associated with _______________ .
20. Maria and Jacob want to have their own biological children but cannot. They are _______________ individuals.
21. Jeremy and Linda are voluntarily choosing not to have children. They are _______________ individuals.
22. How would you describe childfree and parenting adults in terms of life satisfaction?
23. Grandparents may take on many different roles. Which of the following terms might be included among the many labels?
24. Which of the following reasons would be high as a Grandparenting reward?
25. Which of the following is mentioned in the text as a Grandparenting difficulty?
26. Which model(s) can be applied to the study of family role transitions:
27. As adult children move into personal authority in the family system, they move through the caregiving trajectory of _______________when providing support for aging parents.
28. _____________ is/are often a source of advice and emotional support for older adults.
29. The American Housing Survey of 2005 finds that most Americans live in _____________they own in the _______________.
30. The abstract experience of home is related to the personalization and experiences we have in a physical structure that shapes ________________________.
31. Which of the following groups generally report higher community satisfaction?
32. It is common for older adults to move following retirement. Which of the following reasons mentioned in your text may predicate such a move?
33. What is the term that means adults want to choose where they live and have any needed assistance brought to that place?
34. Traditional college students are those who ________________.
35. Of the following factors, which is linked to academic success for traditional college students?
36. Life skills courses, such as parenting and fitness classes, as well as GED classes and tutoring in English as a second language, are commonly associated with __________________________.
37. Super’s theory of career development, involving the four stages: exploration, establishment, maintenance, and disengagement, is being replaced with a focus on __________________________.
38. _____________________ highlights six personality types: Realistic, Conventional, Social, Artistic, Investigative, and Enterprising.
39. _______________incidents include any situation in which unwanted sexual behaviors occur in the workplace, particularly when such behavior is connected to employment status (quid pro quo) or creates an offensive work environment (hostile environment).
40. Despite the research to the contrary, older workers face age discrimination based on stereotypes that they ___________________________.
41. When does the peak of volunteer service generally occur?
42. Medicare was originally intended to cover _____________________.
43. Data from 2008, regarding payment for residential facilities, shows that after contributions from Medicare, Medicaid, and other resources, on average ________ of the costs are paid out-of-pocket.
44. Under normal circumstances, our brains lose 2–3 grams of weight per year after age 60.
45. In some cases, younger and older adults use different parts of their brains to process the same information.
46. Researchers have found that the neurological organization of male and female brains is somewhat different.
47. Particular aspects of working memory decline with age, beginning in young adulthood.
48. Memories for life events and experiences tend to deteriorate with age.
49. It is relatively easy to convince individuals that they remember something that, in reality, did not happen.
50. Even though the amount of improvement declines with age, older adults can improve their memories with training and practice.
51. Myth: According to information processing theory, information can stay in short-term memory for several hours.
52. Short-term and working memories are the same thing.
53. Selective attention involves focusing on two things at one time.
54. Older people are more likely to remember who told them something interesting but forget what the interesting information was.
55. Memories for procedures, such as playing an instrument or typing, tend to deteriorate with age.
56. Memories for facts, knowledge, and concepts tend to decline with age.
57. Younger adults report having more trouble remembering names than middle-aged adults do.
58. The _________________offers a framework for following information as it moves from the environment to our permanent storage, to be retrieved when needed.
59. ______________________states that information from the environment enters our awareness through our sensory registers, is held in short-term memory for processing in the working memory, and continues to long-term memory where it is stored and retrieved by the working memory when needed.
60. The ____________ proposes a structure in which energy travels along many pathways of connected units of information at once, allowing for the retrieval and manipulation of procedural, semantic, and episodic memories simultaneously.
61. Brain imaging produced by structural scans, such as CT and MRI scans, have demonstrated brain atrophy, beginning for most people after age ________.
62. Which technology(ies) reveal more about the functioning of parts of the brain by charting activity?
63. Older adults perform better when they__________.
64 Older adults have reduced attentional energy and therefore are ___________.
65. Which of the following is more apt to show deterioration with age?
66. Which type of memory demonstrates a great amount of loss and deterioration with age?
67. Events of September 1, particularly the World Trade Center attacks, may be a sound example for what type of memory.
68. Which of the following statements would be associated as a common memory error?
69.What memory device allows many a student to remember the colors of a prism/rainbow by using the acronym, Roy G. Biv?
70.There are internal and external strategies that can also improve the likelihood of memory retrieval. An example of an external strategy is:
71. IQ tests are generally used for diagnostic purposes in clinical settings.
72. In areas of expertise adults will show little if any cognitive decline while at the same time they will show cognitive decline in other areas.
73. There is an accepted academic theory of intelligence that promotes common sense as a key facet of general intelligence.
74. There is an accepted academic theory of intelligence that recognizes athletic ability as intelligent.
75. Older adults with higher educational achievement tend to be better at everyday problem solving than those with less education.
76. Motivation is one of the major elements in moving from moral thoughts to moral behaviors.
77. Research shows that the moral development of most journalists is higher than the average adult.
78. Intelligence and memory are affected differently by aging.
79. Studies show that IQ peaks in middle adulthood and remains stable through late adulthood.
80. People who are gifted are good at everything.
81. Most researchers define creativity in terms of whether the final product, such as a song or a piece of pottery, has been judged to be creative.
82. Older adults would rather collaborate with their siblings in problem solving than with their own adult children.
83. When faced with a moral dilemma, using the question “How will I benefit from this?” is a mature approach.
84. Myth: Researchers find that men and women consistently emphasize different values in moral reasoning.
85. A person’s values tend to be stable throughout life.
86. People are generally consistent in applying their values no matter what area of life a moral conflict occurs in.
87. Four primary approaches to cognition are the _______________________.
88. The _________________________, one of the most popular IQ tests used, includes tasks of verbal comprehension, working memory, perceptual organization, and processing speed.
89. ______________ intelligence consists of the knowledge gained through educational and cultural systems, such as common vocabulary and mathematical skills.
90. Which alternative theory of intelligence emphasizes the interaction of analytic, creative, and practical intelligences?
91. It is likely that creativity productivity slows in _________________, while creative skills, cognitive complexity, and personal motivation may continue to grow.
92. Which of the following factors is a better predictor of older adults’ competence in daily living?
93. What may increase the likelihood of successful problem solving in everyday situations and contribute to overall successful aging?
94. The way a person reasons and justifies moral actions changes with growth in cognitive sophistication and complexity, which generally corresponds to _______________.
95. _________________ relies on ego strength and conviction to do the right thing, particularly when the consequences are predicted to be uncomfortable (Narvaez & Rest, 1995; Rest & Narvaez, 1991).
96. Kohlberg’s second of the three levels, conventional moral reasoning, demonstrates an advance in maturity in that we have internalized social rules and dominant values, thus we will now look beyond egocentric needs to the needs of others. Who generally functions at this level?
98. Which of the following stages is the ultimate stage in Kohlberg’s theory that reflects the culmination of all the previous stages?
99. Physical appearance is an important characteristic in choosing friends for both young and middle-aged adults.
100. The cohabitation effect is the common research finding that couples who cohabit prior to marriage are more likely to divorce.
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