Please answer only from attached files, not from online sources, Thnx
DAIGLE CH 2, 3 & 4 – LECTURE
OBJECTIVES & STUDY GUIDE
1. Draw normal carotid anatomy with waveforms for each
2. Discuss the clinical symptoms associated with a hemispheric stroke
3. How does TIA and RIND differ from Stroke?
4. What is Amaurosis Fugax and where would you look for the cause?
5. What are the three main windows available to you for scanning the Carotids?
6. What is the fool proof method of determining ECA from ICA? Why?
7. Define these terms – Anechoic, Sonolucent, Echolucent, Echogenic, Hyperechoic, Hypoechoic, Isoechoic, Heterogenous, Homogenous
8. Explain the difference between the ECA and ICA waveform (resistance) and why?
9. Draw and Calculate Percent Diameter Stenosis. Why is this not a reliable method for categorizing Carotid disease?
10. Define the different plaque characterizations and their morphology
11. Explain the significance for the flow drop off in a tight, near occlusive Stenosis
12. Explain the significance of the NASCET/ACAS studies. Differentiate between the traditional “Bulb” method versus Angiographic method, in categorizing P-ICA disease.
13. Chart the SRU table parameters commonly used in categorizing Carotid disease
14. Explain Fibro muscular Dysplasia. If found, in the Carotids, where else would you want to look?
15. What are the common collateral pathways for ICA occlusion?
16. What are the common collateral pathways for CCA occlusion?
17. What is the significance for reversed flow in the vertebral artery?
18. Explain the difference between Subclavian Steal and Subclavian Steal Syndrome
19. Draw the different stages of Subclavian Steal using the waveforms
20. Explain how using Reactive Hyperemia would be helpful with documenting Subclavian Stenosis
21. Explain Carotid dissection; List the clinical and sonographic findings