1- SARA is a very popular and widely used scientific model used in crime analysis. It stands for Scanning, Analyzing, Responding, and Assessing (Santos, 2013).
- Scanning and defining problems: Identifies issues concerning the public and police. It also authenticates a problem by taking into account environmental and behavioral factors (Santos, 2013).
- Analyzing data to understand the opportunities that create a problem: It involves research on the specific problem, how it affects locally, and what is currently being done about the problem (Santos, 2013).
- Responding to the problem using police and nonpolice methods: It populates realistic strategies that can be implemented to correct the problem.
- Assessing whether the response has worked: An evaluation step to see if the plan developed in step 3 was properly implemented and to see if it has had a positive influence on the problem.
This is a very thorough crime analysis model because it coVery the entire lifecycle of a problem from its identification all the way to its correction. It also focuses on solving one-term problems by providing long-term solutions.
Another popular scientific model is the 5 I’s Model. This model stands for Intelligence, Intervention, Implementation, Involvement, and Impact (Ratcliffe, 2003).
- Intelligence: the use creating intelligent information (data that has been analyzed) to identify problems (Ratcliffe, 2003).
- Intervention: the process of using the intelligent information to find a solution to the problem (Ratcliffe, 2003).
- Implementation: the process of implementing the planned solution/strategy to correct the problem (Ratcliffe, 2003).
- Involvement: the careful involvement of different individuals with different tasks to deliver the planned strategy to correct the problem (Ratcliffe, 2003).
- Impact: determining whether the strategy is yielding a positive impact of the problem (Ratcliffe, 2003).
The 5 I’s model is very similar to the SARA model. This model specifically pays very close attention to the use of intelligent based policing and to proper analysis, just like step 2 of the SARA process. It also evaluates the performance of the solution, just like in the fourth step of SARA. Both of these crime reduction models are there to help law enforcement agencies identify large and problematic issues in their communities. They are to be used as guidelines on how to correct these long-term problems. They can be very useful because they both cover the lifecycle of problem correction and they pay special importance to proper scientific methods of analysis.
Ratcliffe, J. (2003). Intelligence-led policing. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 248. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. Retrieved from https://www.aic.gov.au/publications/tandi/tandi248.
Santos, R. B. (2013). Implementation of a police organizational model for crime reduction. Policing, 36(2), 295-311. http://dx.doi.org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1108/13639511311329714.
2- Each model has a point of emphasis and strategic approach on crime prevention and reduction based on scientific methods. The SARA model is a problem-solving approach described by Scanning, Analysis, Response, and Assessment (Boba Santos, 2017). The first step in the model is to scan the problem and the identification of a cluster of similar, related, or recurring incidents. The second step is the analysis and the use of several sources of information to determine why the issue occurs. The third step is the response and execution of actions that address the most critical findings of the analysis phase. The last step is the assessment that measures the impact of the reactions on crime and disorder problems using the information gathered from multiple sources.
In contrast to the SARA model, Predictive Policing is a method that uses information and advanced analysis on crime prevention strategies, with the operation of computer models of prior crime and environmental data. These techniques use advanced statistical methods with machine learning and applied algorithms from other scientific fields (Rummens and Hardyns, 2021). These methods use big data from large amounts of various crimes and other data available from police and other databases (Rummens and Hardyns, 2021). That also includes the application of mico-geographical locations that reflects any existing crime variables. This helps by accurately predicting crime events based on statistics and deploying appropriate responses to identified areas of crimes. Another model is the Intelligence-Led Policing method used with intelligence and analysis used to reduce and prevent crime efforts. That tries to identify potential victims and repeated offenders and uses that information to intervene in criminal activity.
Rummens, A., & Hardyns, W. (2021). The effect of spatiotemporal resolution on predictive policing model performance. International Journal of Forecasting, 37(1), 125–133. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.ijforecast.2020.03.006
Boba Santos, R. (2017). Crime analysis and crime mapping (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ISBN-13: 9781506331034 https://bibliu.com/app/#/view/books/9781506331041/…
3-The offender target relationship is at the root of most criminal problems (Santos, 2017, pg. 361). Most crime problems have two dimensions, the environmental dimension, and the behavioral dimension (Santos, 2017, pg.361). We will be talking about the behavioral dimension. The behavioral dimension of the offender target relationship is important because it highlights the aspects of harm, intent and the relationship between the offender and the target (Santos, 2017, pg.361). According to Santos, there are six types of behaviors related to the behavioral dimension of this relationship, they are:
Predatory: the offender and target are distinct and the target objects to the offender’s actions. Examples include child abuse and robbery.
Consensual: Parties involved interact willingly and perform some sort of transaction. Examples include drug sales or prostitution.
Conflict: A pre-existing, equal, relationship between the offender and target that includes violence. Examples include domestic violence
Incivilities: Offenders and targets are distinguishable from one another, but the targets are among a greater number of individuals. This form of relationship often involves annoying, or unsightly behavior, but does not involve serious property damage or injury. Examples include vandalism and disorderly conduct.
Endangerment: The offender and victim can be the same person, or the offender had no intent to harm the target. Examples include suicide or drug overdoses.
Misuse of police: Unwarranted demands on police services. Examples include false reporting and nuisance reports of issues that can dealt with by the caller themselves.
(Santos, 2017, pg. 361)
The offender target relationship, as well as the two dimensions applicable to this relationship, and the six different types of relationships, all mentioned above, are smaller pieces to the, larger, theory of routine activities. According to the Arizona State University Center for Problem Oriented Policing, the routine activities theory is a powerful and simple insight into the causes of crime, generally. At the heart of the routine activities theory is the idea that, absent effective controls and the presence of a guardian, offenders will prey on targets and that all three things need to be present for crime to occur, the offender, the target and, the guardian, or lack thereof (Arizona State University Center for Problem Oriented Policing, 2020).
Santos, R. B. (2017). Crime Analysis and Crime Mapping (4thth ed., p. 361). Tall Oaks, CA: Sage. Retrieved from https://bibliu.com/app/#/view/books/9781506331041/epub/OEBPS/s9781506331010.i1721.html#page_360
A Theory of Crime Problems. (2020). In Arizona State University Center of Problem Oriented Policing. Retrieved from https://live-cpop.ws.asu.edu/sites/default/files/learning/pam/help/theory-2.html
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