part 1

As a student, my favorite type of item is the constructed-response items whether short-answer items or essay items because they give me chance to explain and express my knowledge and prove my writing skills through out composition in order to gain more grades. In regard to my least favorite type, which are the selected-response items (multiple choice, true and false, and matching). I hate these kinds of tests because if I choose the wrong answer, I would miss the grade of that item and there is no chance to collect grade thus I feel more stress if I encounter questions that I am not sure about their answers. As a teacher, I would say my favorite item is the selected-response (multiple choices, true and false, matching) because they are easy to correct and to grade and usually they will not take much time. On the other hand, constructed-response items are difficult to correct and take a lot of time.

part 2

First off all, I will make sure that students own their portfolios by explaining it and expressing the importance of their personal ownership of the portfolios and the significance of their own evolution of the kinds of the work they put in their portfolios.

Second, I will decide collaboratively with my students what goes in the portfolios. I would give them choices to determine what they want to put in their portfolios. Then, students will collect their work samples as they created and place them in folder box and put all portfolios in the shelves that I prepared for them.

After that, I will work collaboratively with my students to select the best criteria that suitable to all students in which my students and me can judge the quality of their portfolio products. Then, I will ask my students to evaluate their own portfolio products at least every two days based on the criteria that we agreed on and each student will date his/her product after the evaluation and put it in their portfolios to see their progress each time. Such evaluation helps students to modify their products and then improve them. After that, I will hold conferences every month with each student one-by-one and discuss the most concerned to the student and me. Finally, I will involve all parents/ guardians by explaining to them the importance of portfolios and encouraging them to review their children’s samples as well as their children’s self-evaluation.

part 3

After I have read chapter 11, I have found that in order to improve teacher’s assessment, teachers should know the idea of two improvement strategies: judgmental item improvement procedures and empirical item improvement procedures.

Three sources, which are the teacher himself, the teacher’s colleagues, and teacher’s students can do judgmental item improvement procedures. For judging teacher himself/herself, there are five review criteria he or she should follow to improve their assessment. First, adherence to item-specific guidelines and general item-writing commandments and if the teacher sees any item that needs to improve, the teacher then can fix it. The second criterion is that contribution to score-based inference. The third standard for the teacher to consider is the accuracy of content. The absence of content lacunae would be the fourth criterion and finally the fairness when a teacher develops his/her assessment instruments. In regard to colleague’s judgment, teachers can ask their trusted colleagues to review their test’s items and teachers should provide their colleagues with the five criteria that I mentioned previously. Finally, teachers should get benefits from their student’s judgmental. Student’s judgments can provide useful insights to teachers and student’s reactions can help teachers to spot shortcomings in specific item.

In regard to empirical item improvement procedures, this approach depends on the empirical data that students supply when they respond to the instruments that teachers have developed. This approach deal with numbers and to improve the tests quality, teachers should consider two methods, which are the difficulty of the item, and item discrimination indices. First, the difficulty of the item, which referred to as P value. The P value can be measured by dividing the number of students responding correctly to an item(R) by the total number of students responding to the item (T). The P value of an item should be viewed in relationship to student’s chance probability of getting the correct response. Second, item discrimination indices, which tells us how frequently an item is answered correctly by those who preform well on the total test. It reflects the relationship between student’s responses for the total test and their responses to a specific test item, and that can be done by calculating a correlation coefficient between student’s total test scores and their performance on a particular item. For teachers to compute an item’s discrimination index, they have to follow four steps, which are:

1. Order the test papers from high to low by total score.

2. Divide the papers into a high group and low group with an equal number of papers in each group.

3. Calculate a P value for each of the high and the low groups.

4. Subtract the P value of the low group from the P value of the high group to obtain each item’s discrimination index. All these strategies can improve the assessment of teacher’s instrument.

part 4

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of student’s status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.”(Popham, 2011,P270). Formative assessment is absolutely not a test to measure student’s achievement rather it is a process to help teachers adjust their instruction and help students to improve their learning tactics. It helps students to learn better and also gives teachers the opportunity to monitor their student’s progress thus teachers can review their instructional decisions and then adjust them to improve student’s learning. In our school, we have agreed to use formative assessment in which teachers can employ it occasionally during the school year and they will select what kind of assessment that they are going to use in the classroom then establish adjustment triggers based on student’s performance on formative assessment’s activities then teachers can see student’s progress in learning and it is time for teachers to do any needed adjustment for their instructional decisions. After that, students will have the chance to see whether they need to adjust their own learning tactics and the ways they are trying to learn a particular skill. Then there would be a change in the atmosphere of a classroom in terms of learning expectations, responsibility for learning, and the role of classroom assessment. In other words, the substantial learning expectation used to occur for well- motivated students and with formative assessment it would allow substantial learning expectation to be for all students. Also, students might have the responsibility for learning as well as the learning of their classmates. Teachers are encouraged to use formative assessment whether formal or informal assessment activities including ungraded tests for informing decisions about teacher and student’s adjustments. All these assessments are enriching student’s knowledge and skills and to make sure that all students can master the curricular aim.

part 5

There are three ways for teachers to interpret the reporting results of standardized test scores. First, teachers can interpret the results using a percentile, which simply compares a student’s score with other students in a norm group. For example, a percentile of 80 indicates the student performed better that 80% of the students in the norm group. This comparison with the norm group is based on the performances of a group of individuals who have already been administered a particular examination. For instance, if a student’s test score is equal to the 30 th percentile, the student’s performance exceeds the performance of 30% of the individuals in the norm group. Also, there are two of norm groups: national norm groups and local norm groups. The advantage of percentile is that they are easy to interpret and people’s interpretations of percentiles are accurate. A disadvantage of percentiles is the defensibility of the interpretation is totally dependent on the nature of the normative data on which the percentiles are based.

The second method that teachers can interpret standardized test scores is grade-equivalent scores. Grade equivalent score is an indicator of student test performance based on grade level and months of the school year. The goal of this method is to transform scores on standardized tests into an index reflecting a student’s grade-level progress in school. For example, a grade equivalent score of 5.6 means the 5 represents the fifth grade and the 6 represents the sixth month of the school year. To illustrate, lets say that a fourth –grade student makes a grade-equivalent score of 5.6 in writing, that means the fourth- grade understands those writing skills the test covers about as well as average sixth-grade does at midyear. An advantage of grade-equivalent scores is they can be readily communicated to parents. A disadvantage of this method is they usually misinterpreted.

The final method that teachers can interpret standardized test scores is the scale scores. Scale scores are interpreted according to a converted numerical scale that allows us to transform raw scores into more statistically useful scale score units. For example, a student who gets a raw score of 30 out of 40 items might end up with a converted scale score of 800. An advantage of scale scores is they can be useful in equalizing difficulties of different test forms. A disadvantage of scale scores is they are not easy to interpret or maybe impossible to interpret.

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